Friday, November 25, 2011

Writing in the Information Age

How many short stories have you written in the past six months? As adults 80% of writing consists of expository writing. We write most often for a purpose: to communicate information, to ask questions, to make reports and to interact with colleagues. In the Information Age, for business and pleasure, we more often communicate electronically with colleagues, friends and family.

It is in the reading and responding to text that we create writing opportunities for students who may be reluctant to put pen to paper. The role of the teacher in the Information Age is to guide students in communication skills, which will help them fully function in a language and communication-based economy. Young people are more than facile with electronic communication and they are not afraid to try any new technological development. In fact, educators, such as Burke (2003), believe that using digital technology can help us communicate in layers of understanding that carries a far more creative opportunity.

We know from brain research (Jensen, Caine, Greenwood, Nunley) that when we integrate brain functions we create dendritic connections that reinforce learning and make learning easier. Expository writing incorporates data, information, knowledge and leads to a deeper understanding by linking linguistic meanings to graphic representations. This holistic integration transforms the learner from a passive writer to a creator. Anchored in specific, authentic writing tasks, students can be encouraged to refine writing skills by incorporating digital technology into permanent records of their work.

Writing in the Information Age
With the advent of the Information Age, educators have realized whole new worlds that are open to them. Digital communication links learners to other learners. It provides an avenue for linking us globally on the Information Highway, creating multicultural respect, and understanding of diversity and opportunities for educators to facilitate tolerance. While much has been written in the inequities of the current economic climate, there are many opportunities for technosavy educators to take advantage of technological advances and create opportunities for growth. We are increasingly limited by cutbacks to human and financial resources. Initiatives paid for by the PT3 grants have diminished as this program winds down. Universities are exploring new opportunities such as laptops, which sit on moveable carts, moving around schools on a rotational basis. Other faculties have created mentoring programs with the intent of increasing the integration of technology.

Technology Integration
At the 2003 SITE Conference, keynote speaker Dr. MD Roblyer asked, “If technology is the answer, what is the question?” The integration of technology into our writing is multisensory, inclusive, symbolic, interactive and universal in its design. It establishes a student’s work as a meaningful representation of their knowledge and understandings. Using technology enables students to work at their own pace as they undertake projects which integrate subjects, create relationships amongst concepts, participate in flexible groupings, and collaborate and communicate with one another.
semantic organisers
For or these reasons I have chosen to use technology with my elementary students as a major focus of our regular work. The bulk of the work students have created is an e-portfolio of their creative and expository writings, their major project presentations, derived from Social Studies, Science, Arts and Language Arts work. They create graphic representations of their knowledge and connect left and right brain work in meaningful ways.

Authentic Writing Opportunities
Will multimedia, technology-based opportunities create authentic writing opportunities for our students? I believe it will. As we begin to collect more data on the use of computer technology and come to a greater understanding of and further interpretations of pedagogy, we are realizing that we are not making students smarter by giving them more time on a computer. In the Postmodernist Era this is simply not enough. Our notion of education and learning and curriculum design must and will change if we want to move into the Information Age. We must critically reflect on where we are heading in using technology in our schools.

The manner in which we will implement computers and create programs for our elementary students has a profound impact on both the student and the teacher. Our students have access to drag and drop applications and voice-activated computers are just down the road. We must prepare students for the learning process, not just to fill them like vessels with facts. We must challenge our students in new ways by encouraging them to use digital technology to help them construct meaning.

Many parents I speak to insist that we develop their child's computer skills, often at the expense of other skills. They feel that the computer skills they require in the workplace must be taught at an earlier age. I believe we need to teach our students how to learn, as much as how to use our minds. Costa's Developing Minds, as quoted in Senge (1991), supported by work in chapter 13, The Good Thinker, identifies Intellectual Behaviours which demand that we develop in our student's minds these skills:
persistence, self-control, listening skills, flexibility in thinking, metacognition, a quest for accuracy and precision, the ability to question, assimilating past knowledge and experiences, ingenuity, originality, insightfulness: creativity, precision of language and thought, multisensory data-gathering, humour, wonderment, inquisitiveness and curiosity, co-operative thinking and social intelligence.
Senge (1991)
Technology-based writing opportunities create problem solvers and thinkers as they rise to the challenge of communication literacy.

E-Portfolios
To require students to record their activities on an e-portfolio ensures that they are motivated to do work at home, to do reading and writing in order to be prepared for the activities of the next day. Research abounds on the benefits of Multimedia, web-based projects that require students to provide evidence of their learning. These activities, if properly scaffolded, provide for authentic writing opportunities for learners. Students are carefully guided in word processing their expository and creative writing. They learn to edit for meaning, using that wonderful little spell check tool, creating graphics, spreadsheets, graphing data, writing scripts, connecting the visual to text and learning to use encoding tools which make their web page work much easier.

Discovering American Memory
The case for e-portfolios is a strong one. More and more pre-service teachers are required to prepare portfolios. The collection of various artifacts, the overviews and the reflection on learning, provides a summative assessment of progress for both student and teacher. (See Ice Storm '98 examples!)

Web Page Content
Student e-portfolios can be any combination of activities. Clagget, for example, encourages students to draw their vocabulary words, creating visual representations of their understanding of the written word. I have found that students are eager to digitally record events, report on its success, review the event for its meaning and purpose, and create scripts and voiceovers for iMovies and photogalleries.

Students can create visual essays, develop literacy narratives, create digital storytelling, use the web to reflect in literature circles, perform graphic note-taking, document science experiments, After students participate in a workshop, review a movie or view an Arts performance, they have an opportunity to write a commentary. There are several ways to do this. I tend to use  a number of templates which enable even the weakest writer to create a critical reflection of an event. More able writers need not depend upon this.

This is one way to archive student work
and create e-portfolios!
Norton-Meier, in “To Efoliate or Not To Efoliate? The Rise of the Electronic Portfolio in Teacher Education”, says that we must be vigilant and ensure that content is pruned and weeded. Incorporating digital images into their work provides logographic cues to the reader and the writer, for a good part of writing is writing for a purpose; to communicate information, to connect meaning and to reflect on their thoughts and their work.

Planning
Preparing student to write is an important aspect of their projects. Pre-writing strategies vary with projects but require the use of thinking skills to critically reflect upon their work and to choose their communication strategies, whether it be text or graphically-based. This motivates students to go to the word processor and plan, write, collaborate and rewrite. Sometimes it is a simple mind map of connecting thoughts and ideas, which they coordinate at the keyboard.
Reluctant writers know that their ticket into the computer lab is a plan, either a webbing of ideas, an outline, a prepared first or final draft which they can edit to present to the world. This is a strong motivator for students who are anxious to put fingers to keyboards. Students have often e- mailed first drafts to me in order to spend more time fine tuning details in our precious computer lab periods.

Assessment
Assessment consists of prepared rubrics designed to give student the opportunity to self and peer-assess. Students create a writing plan, web, outline, draft or good copy of their work wither on paper or on the computer. Their work is created in our word processing program (Appleworks) and then it is handed in to the “hand-in” folder on the schools LAN server. The teacher can request hard copy print-outs, as well, while not saving paper, saving time in front of the computer screen and allowing the teacher to revise and edit at their leisure.

After word processing a project or piece of writing, students convert files to HTML and this can be placed on their web pages. The teacher, as web weaver, is responsible for ensuring that work meets the standards of school board policy. Students may not provide identifying information; nor can they put individual photos on their web pages, which may lead to identification by strangers. It is best to be very aware of school board policy in this regard. Internet safety is a new worry in this era. It is up to teachers to educate students on safe internet practices, rather than relying on artificial net minder devices.

Peer assessment is in ongoing process. Students are eager to share new ideas and peer tutor others as they master new skills. Parents can review progress at any time. We regularly provide feedback as we reflect on our work. Their work is public and this allows for easy peer tutoring, as students refine and revise work. Students to do student-led conferencing at home and e-mail work to friends and families. I would suggest that you explore the possibilities of e-portfolios for all of your students. It is a thoughtful, transformative method of engaging even the most reluctant learners. While the computer and technology are only tools, they are a means by which teachers can provide rich opportunities for growth.
There are many on-line rubric makers that enable the teacher to assess and evaluate student progress. Contact your Board’s IT personnel to get help. A quick on-line Google search will give you formatting help. Assessment should be on-going, developmental and should lead the learner towards improving the mechanics and the content of their work.
The 'S' words add depth to writing

Marking Work
When preparing the students for assessment, the actual marking can be time consuming. My practice was to have students mark each other's work. The purpose in this is three-fold. Firstly, I ensure that a strong student marks the work of a weaker student, and vice versa. The stronger students get a better understanding of their peers, and builds their self-esteem. The less able writers can see what quality work looks like.  'When we know better we do better!'  

Secondly, this saves much time for the teacher and gives me more time to assist those who need my help.
Thirdly, peer tutoring usually ensues, as a student can give gentle reminders of ways to improve writing skills, without the teacher (with her proverbial red pen) having to render judgement on the student. It appears to relive much pressure in the classroom. It must be said, however, that some students may have to be taught how to respectfully give suggestions for improvement. Also, I ask them to choose to mention only three ways to improve the writing, while outlining three things the writer did well. This gives a balance, and encouragement to the struggling writer.

References
1. Burke, J. (2003). English Teachers Companion. Second Edition. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
2. Clagget, F. (1992). Drawing Your Own Conclusions. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
3. Kajder, S. The Tech Savvy English Classroom.
http://www.people.virginia.edu/~sbk8q/techsavvyenglish/
4. Norton-Meier, L.A. (2003) “To Efoliate or Not To Efoliate? The Rise of the Electronic Portfolio in Teacher Education”. Found at: www.readingonline.org/newliteracies/jaal/3- 03_column/ , March 18th, 2004.
5. Nunley, K. www.brains.org and www.help4teachers.com 
6. Senge, P., et al (2000) Schools That Learn, Doubleday, Inc., NY 
7. Jilks, J.A. (2003) Our class web site: www.ocdsb.edu.on.ca/mandweb/jilks 
8. www.jilks.com 
9. Digital Resources http://www.teacherlink.org/content/social/ 
10. WebQuest: Who Wants to Be a Pioneer?
http://www.teacherlink.org/content/social/instructional/pioneer/home.html
11. Rubric-builder: http://landmark-project.com/rubric_builder/index.php

e-Portolios for student work

This is one way to publicly celebrate student work. For student-led conferences I have assigned students the task of reviewing their e-portfolio with their parents.
This is one way to archive student work
and create e-portfolios!
In this way parents can compare their student's work with others and have a better understanding of what quality work truly looks like.

My class web page was organised this way:
The hotlinks are easy to navigate.

Assignment directions are archived here
On another file, I created a list of assignments, and allowed families to access the projects and the rubrics themselves.
rubric of expectations provides goals

Thursday, November 24, 2011

Drama, role play, emotions with preschoolers

We are having much fun with our granddaughters. Ages 4 and 1, it is a great time to have simple play.
Josephine (4) has been taught not to grab a toy from her little sister, Isabelle (1), but to find another toy and exchange. The beauty of this is that young Isabelle has been doing the same with her big sister.

While we are a high-tech family, we find much fun in drama.

We made a fun cat mask last week. Simple, with a few materials.
Drama and role play can be fun, too.

We were sitting on the front deck, talking about emotions. Young kids must be able to identify their feelings, especially with a sibling around.
I asked Josephine to show me: how you feel when...
you meet someone new

you feel sad

you get a birthday present

Mommy says NO!

Isabelle steals your toy

You have a bad dream

you're making a plan

you see a scary movie

We do a lot of dress-up, too. Used clothing stores have been so fun!
I videotaped the Royal Wedding, and we wore hats, gloves, and watched in fun!




Monday, November 21, 2011

Home Day Care Crafts

Isabelle having lunch

I drove the car the hour and a half into the Otto Subaru dealership for a major tune-up. Winter approacheth and rural driving requires a vehicle be kept in shape.

Subaru told me it would be 5 hours for this big tune-up.
They were having fun doing an art project. I was inspired.

I phoned my son-in-law, and asked if he would take in an orphan for the duration. Ma Mére, his mom, was babysitting. I phoned in desperation, hoping someone would babysit *me*!

Like this, Gramma!
With my daughter off on a trip to Washington, studying 'Construction Dewatering' (I kid you not–she's a hydrogeologist!), my son-in-law ('Papa') is working from home as an encryption engineer consultant.

Ma Mére was busy making grilled cheese for them all. (I was still full from my breakfast!) Papa was on a conference call.

We raided Mummy's make-up drawer!
Josephine wanted to make a cat mask. That was right up my alley! I have three degrees in people, B.A. (ECE), B.Ed., and M.Ed.! I can use my skills and training! I so prefer Home Day Care, non-profit day care, nursery schools for preschoolers. In the safety and intimacy of home day care, with caring, licenced professionals, kids thrive. I am against putting kids in school institutional settings in full-day kindergarten. With pupil/teacher ratios that border on criminal, the Home Day Care ratios of 1:5, or public Day Care's 1:8, preschoolers have the opportunity to thrive in an atmosphere love and family. Education is such a political thing.

It's a cute little project, from a 'workbook' one of the grammas gave her. Me, Ma Mére, who knows! We love spotting good buys at craft stores, the second hand stores, used book sales, garage sales!

Jofee wanted green whiskers,
she cut them herself.
Motivated, she will be 4 on December 9th!
 The sheet has a list at the bottom of materials we needed. This is far more organised than I was doing art with my students. I used to find some interesting materials, pine cones, bits of material from crafty parents, felt, and cheap materials. Then present them to my class. Some bright light would create a brilliant model, others would create an individual art project that didn't look like any one else's project.

I loved having open-ended art like this. Kindergarten teachers spend much time pre-cutting materials, ensuring that each craft looks the same. That isn't art. That is structured activity.

We discussed the lesson plan.
I suggested that while the cat in the sample was black,
our cat mask could be any colours we wished it to be!
Kids need opportunities to choose from a variety of materials, come up with a plan, invent a new idea.

Projects need not look like they are fine art, and it is the process, not the product.


Papa found some string -for those ties that bind!

Isabelle laughs at her gramma from the other end of the table!

She loves acting the part of a cat.
Jofee adores our cats, too.
The little bit of red on her cheek was a dab of ketchup! Oops.

Final project done.
Thankfully they took me in. Jofee and I had fun, while Ma Mére had fun with Isabelle.

Below is a video I made of our last forest walk.
The kids visited us and they had a sleepover!



Nothing like the shush of leaves during a forest walk.
It is so much fun being a gramma!

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Teasing, Bullying and Harassment

"If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem."




Questions for Student and Teacher Reflection

1. a) What is bullying? b) What is harassment? c) What is teasing?
2. a) What kind of people bully? Why? b) What kind of people harass? Why? c) What kind of people tease? Why?
3. a) I have been a victim of bullying when....
b) I have been a victim of harassment when...
c) I have been a victim of teasing when....
4. I have bullied, harasses, teased somebody when....
5. What are the consequences of a) bullying, b) harassment and c) teasing?
6. What should you do if you are a victim of bullying, harassment and teasing?
7. Where could you go for help?
8. Draw a picture of bullying, harassment and/or teasing.
9. What language can you use when faced with bullying?
Bystanders MUST speak truth to power. Those in power must respond swiftly.
When bullying becomes a mental health issues, and suicidal ideations occur, the response must be strong and sure. Those who are bullied and depressed will sink so low that they may not be able to be reached with normal interventions. One cannot control depression. I've been there in that place. You feel helpless.

When my principal bullied me in my workplace, I took leave, spoke truth to power (my superintendent) and to the safety management team. The school board first offered supports and interventions, then denied the issues. This must stop. They lost a good teacher, had to hire a supply teacher to replace me, and the workplace suffere and learning conditions were diminished.

Integrative Activities: Suggestions for Teachers


  • Awareness raising activities
  • Bullying assignment (above)
  • Data collection (anonymous surveys)
  • Sociograms of behaviour
  • No-blame interventions
  • Role play and empowerment for victims
AntiBullying Video on YouTube.




Identify the Problem and create workable solutions
The research says it must be talked about and it must be dealt with. I deal with it using cross-curricular strategies (Music/Art/Dance/Drama- M.A.D.D.)since it is such an emotional issue. Asking students to identify their perceptions of teasing, bullying, and harassment, i.e. a KWL chart, allows them to frame the problem. Students can reflect on the questions above, through oral discussions, writing activities, or by drawing their feelings, depending upon grade level.
Older students can work together to come up with definitions that mean something to them. They can fine tune their definitions on their own or do research to better understand the differences between a friend teasing and illegal activities, such as luring and harassment. Intermediate students can do research to find resources and create PowerPoint presentations suitable for younger peers. Students who are being harassed or bullied on the internet can get help in identifying the problem.
What I have found, however, is by opening the discussion with a picture book (i.e. Mean Jean the Recess Queen!), no matter the age group, discussion ensues and dialogue is generated. During drama activities by placing bullied students into the role of the bully, the bullies have a better understanding of how it feels. It has been a most successful strategy for me and mine! We take photographs to demonstrate what these three different ideas truly mean. Asking students to create a tableaux or a skit, with resolution of the dilemma, allows for student reflection on an individual basis, followed by group discussions. This will accommodate ESL, Special Needs and all learning styles, as best fits your learners. Students can develop the confidence to use language they have practiced in a safe environment.
Having bullies play the role of victim, and victims play the role of bullies helps generate opportunities for discussion.
They can show what bullying and harassment feels like and looks like. This is an opportunity for student disclose to the teacher and seek help where needed. It opens dialogue. You might find that bullies are victims, too. Many are bullied by older siblings or older students. They learn what they live. They need to unlearn these behaviours and they can.
All of us need to be given the language to deal with those who choose to be a bully. They need role plays, opportunities to practice these skills and ensure that the language is there at their disposal at the right time. The key, of course, are teachers who support them and give them these tools. Stress in the teaching profession is increasing exponentially.
Another strategy some educators use is to have the older bullies visit the primary classes to talk about and listen to the younger students concerns. They can then understand the true consequences of their actions. They discuss being safe on the school yard. What it feels like to be afraid of the big kids all the time. Within a safe environment, the victims can learn to speak up for themselves. They need to understand that physical and emotional abuse will not be tolerated.
There are gender differences in bullying. Girls tend to bully and harass indirectly, boy's bullying is more physical and direct.

 Teachers
Teachers must be vigilant. They must be aware of the issues in the classroom, and on the school yard.
They must talk about this, all the time. Discuss harassment, discuss what bullying looks like, feels like, sounds like, and refuse to allow students to participate in activities that give them opportunities to harass peers. Interventions, role play, discussions about the language students use to bully one another.

They must facilitate mentoring programs, invite students to disclose safely.
They must respond swiftly to student concerns.

Principals
Principals must be swift to respond. Suspensions do not solve the problem. Interventions do. Principals must be on the schoolyard, and in the hallways. In-school sanctions can be swift and sure: denying bullies field trips, access to the play yard until they can manage to treat others with respect.

Parents
Must be involved with any technology that their child uses. They must have a Facebook account and insist that their child friends them. Go on as the family pet, and you child's friends will keep you informed, even if they block you!
They must begin to understand the applications their child uses. I learned Facebook to understand what my students were doing.
You must understand that many parents are afraid of being involved and do not want to appear ignorant. In this case encouraging a young person to tell the other child's parents can save a life. Encouraging a child to tell a teacher, or someone in authority. It is crucial.

Tips for Parents with Children on the Internet

1. Place the computer in the family room or other visible area, not in child’s bedroom.
2. Use gender-neutral screen names.
3. Talk to children about Internet safety and participate with them online. If they know more than you, let them teach you.Start when they are young. 
4. Children shouldn’t believe anything said to them over the Net from an unknown source.
5. Tell children they do not have to respond to messages sent to them, whether by e-mail or instant message.
6. Children should never give out personal information, screen names, passwords or credit card information online.
7. Use a good virus detection program.
8. Supervise children’s computer usage. Don’t rely on filtering software to do the work. 
9. Check the history function of your browser to see which websites your children have visited.
10. Know who your children are communicating with online. Get to know their online friends just as you would their other friends. 
11. Promote an environment where your children can talk openly with you.

They must first listen, and parent their child. Then get onto the ISP sites, all have abuse intolerance policies. They must be reported.




Direct Bullying




Indirect Bullying
  • shoving and poking
  • throwing things
  • taking things
  • slapping and hitting
  • choking
  • punching and kicking
  • beatings
  • stabbings
  • name-calling
  • taunting
  • rumour
  • gossiping
  • arguing others into submission
  • threats of withdrawing friendship
  • the silent treatment
  • exclusion from the group
Craig and Peplar at York University (1995) employed naturalistic observation rather than self-reports to study bullying. They taped (video and audio) children in two Toronto schools, and analyzed the results. These included:

  • 404 bullying episodes occurred during 52 hours of taping;
  • one incident occurred every 7 minutes on average;
  • a typical incident lasted 37 seconds, a remarkably short time;
  • 79% of the episodes were direct bullying, 18 indirect, and 3 both;
  • 90% of the incidents involved one bully and 92% one victim;
  • 72% of the attacks were by boys and 28% by girls;
  • in 4% of the episodes a weapon was visible;
  • between 26% and 33% of the children in a school bullied between 18% and 22% of the other children;
  • school staff were visible in 17% of the incidents; yet they intervened in 4% only;
  • peers intervened in 11% of the episodes; and 2% of the incidents appeared to be motivated by race.

Harassment

The Criminal Code as amended in 1993 to specifically include the offense of criminal harassment. Before this time people who harassed others were charged under various offenses :
  • trespass
  • uttering threats
  • making indecent or harassing phone calls
  • intimidation or assault by threats.
Unfortunately there had to be physical harm or a threat of physical harm before the authorities could charge offenders with any of the above offenses. Also, these offenses did not cover harassing behaviour that was not violent, such as constantly following someone. The Criminal Code section on criminal harassment now makes it easier for the authorities to deal with conduct commonly referred to as stalking. (03.23.98) See Canada's SchoolNet for more information.
Harassing behaviour can include:
  • repeatedly following you
  • repeatedly visiting, calling, or writing to you, either directly or through someone else.
  • watching you, your home or your workplace
  • doing something that threatens you or someone in your family.
Behaviour which involves following you or communicating with you must happen more than once for it to be considered an offense, hence "repeatedly".
However, behaviour that involves watching you or behaving in a threatening way only once can be criminal harassment. The behaviour must be serious enough to give rise to a reasonable fear on the part of the victim.

Child Porn Spam
Child-porn spam is becoming more aggressive. Many children have e-mail addresses unknown to their parents. Their first exposure to sexuality often happens when they stumble on something in email or on the Web.
WHAT TO DO IF YOU RECEIVE CHILD ABUSE SPAM
If you get child porn spam:
  • Don't click on links or images in the body of a spammed e-mail.
  • Don't forward it to others.
  • Make note of the e-mail, including its date, time, sender and subject head. If you have the technical know-how, copy down any "expanded header" information (refers to extra data attached to the e-mail that's usually hidden).
  • Delete the e-mail.
  • Send a report to Cybertip.ca, Canada's national tipline for reporting the online sexual exploitation of children. The non-profit agency runs a web portal for public reports on child pornography, luring, child sex tourism and children who are exploited through prostitution.
To report:
  • Visit cybertip.ca and fill out an online reporting form.
  • Call toll free 1-866-658-9022, 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Fax report to 1-204-948-2177.

Adults and Bullying

Most teacher resources, as well as student picture books, deal with the who, the how, the what and the why of bullying. Students must be taught to stand up for themselves, as well as others. If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem. Parents have taken to bullying teachers, too. This is an article published on Feb. 2, 2005. In the Toronto Star. Raging parents: The new school yard bullies .
Principals turn around in Ontario has been 60 % in the most recent wave of retirements. New principals may only have the required five years teaching experience. This means they have not had the opportunity to work with a number of diverse principal leaders who can model strength and leadership. Patterson (1993) noticed a pattern in what he calls the "shifting definitions of leadership", and sees some leaders who embody the values of power and control, as they attempt to exercise authority and keep power. Patterson has a vision of the schools of tomorrow. He ideally defines the leadership role: "the process of influencing others to achieve mutually agreed upon purposes for the organization" (1993, p.3). The dynamic organization that is a school is best led by those who do not micromanage, but rather share the power with staff, influence others to find a common vision, determine common goals and help staff make it so. Some leaders will not risk cultivating such a vision. They are more concerned with keeping power, rather than sharing it and risking collaboration.
Principals can share their power and still be in control. Enlightened leaders, before they can institute real change, must find some measure of the organizations strengths and weaknesses. They must have some confidence that their staffs will not over run them if they share the decision making power. Weak organizations, as Patterson (1993) says, are characterized by a top-down approach that requires employees to follow orders and forbids, if not discourages, employee participation. Enlightened leaders can risk dissension when they have the confidence to gather information, values, opinions and ideas from their staffs and, as the final decision is ultimately theirs, exert authority when they have all of the information they need to make a quality decision.


Resources

Cyberbullying:
Canada's award-winning Bullying.org one of the world's first Web sites on bullying, now with sister site www.cyberbullying.ca Cyberbullying.ca, both created by educator Bill Belsey. Cyberbully.org from the Eugene, Ore.-based Center for Safe & Responsible Internet Use.
"Cybersocializing, cyberbullying," at NetFamilyNews, based on an interview with Nancy Willard of the Center for Safe & Responsible Internet Use.
On-line Resources
Beyond Borders (2003) All About the Kids, Toronto Police International Conference on Child Exploitation, As accessed, http://www.beyondborders.org/ Feb., 2005. A web site devoted to the end of child prostitution and child pornography.
Bullying website. http://www.bullying.org (Canadian) Offers products and an on-line, printable bullying survey.
"Bullying Intervention Strategies that Work" at Education-World.com -based on the pioneering work of Norwegian psychologist Dan Olweus.
Canada Safety Council, School Bullies. On-line resources.
Craig, W. (1999). Making a difference in bullying. (Research study in a pdf file). As accessed Feb. 27, 2005.
Green Theatre Productions. The Shape of a Girl A Play by Green Theatre Productions. Web-based Study Guide. It has some good ideas!
Langevin, M. et al. (undated) Teasing and Bullying. Teasing and Bullying: Helping children deal with teasing and bullying: for parents, teachers and other adult University of Alberta. (Some cited on-line resources are expired.) As accessed Feb. 27th, 2005. Excellent resource for student research.
Leblanc, J. C. (2001). Bullying st School. Department of Pediatrics, Psychiatry, Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 2000 Pulsus Group Inc. As accessed Feb. 27, 2005.
Media Awareness Network, (2001).Young Canadians In A Wired World, Environics Research Group. www.media-awareness.ca A accessed Feb., 2005.
National Film Board's Bullying Website.
The New Jersey Coalition for Bullying Awareness and Prevention.
Net Family News and The Online Safety Project
Suderman, et al. (1996) Bullying: Information for Parents and Teachers. Centre for Children and Families in the Justice System: Canada. As accessed Feb. 27, 2005. They also offer ASAP: A School-based Anti-Violence Prevention Program Kit .
Thames Valley D.S.B. Information on Bullying. As accessed Feb. 27, 2005.
WebWise Kids An interactive, Internet Safety Game.
New York Times article on anti-bullying.
For anti-bullying work in Virginia, see SafeKids 9/23 issue.
Books and Print Resources
Bredeson, P.V., Blase, J. & Blase, J. (2002). Breaking the Silence: Overcoming the Problem of Principal Mistreatment of Teachers. USA: Sage Publications, Inc. --Bullying is not limited to children. I have colleagues at the university who are experiencing it from their grad students.
Coloroso, B. (2002 ) The Bully, The Bullied and the Bystander ISBN: 0-00-200648-0.
Craig, W. M. & Peplar, D.J. (1995). Naturalistic observations of bullying and victimization in the school yard.
Craig, W. M. & Peplar, D.J. (1999). Children who bully - Will they just grow out of it? Orbit, 29(4), 16-19.
Middelton-Moz (2004) Bullies: From the Playground to the Boardroom. ISBN: 1558749861. Bullying is becoming prevalent in the workplace, too.
O'Neill, A. (2002) Mean Jean The Recess Queen. Scholastic Press. Pre-K to 3. I have used this picutre book with kids up to gr. 8.
Ross, P.N. (1998) Arresting Violence. A Resource Guide for Schools and Their Communities, Available through ETFO. CD Rom, text and overheads.
Sanders, P.(2004) What Do You Know About Bullying?, with illustrated story/concept formation. Fitzhenry & Whiteside: Canada.
Audio-Visual Resources
CBC Newsworld. Bullying Into Sexy. (2004). An excellent show about sexism and the media. CBC Newsworld broadcast it several times over the past few months. It speaks of female body image, male perceptions of teen-aged girls. It demonstrates how parents need to learn to day no to girls dressing up for "sexy".
It's a Girl's World: How Girls Use their Power to Hurt Each Other - 3 CDs. Host: Paul Kennedy, Producer: Lynn Glazier. Price: $29.99. Product ID: ERDOC00053. This is a phenomenal overview of how girls use social/emotional strategies to bully and to gain power. The 3rd CD examines the issue from the point of view of the work place. I have recommended it to a colleague who is facing this within her work place and has found no solution from the powers-that-be.
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Callaway, C. (no ref). Peer Networking to Build Resiliency Among High School Youth: A violence prevention group. In K. Davis, C. K. Tawney (Eds.), Approaches to Group Work (pp. 64 – 73). Columbus, Oh: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Le, T. N., & Stockdale, G. (2008). Acculturative Dissonance, Ethnic Identity, and Youth Violence. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 001 – 009. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from the PsycARTICLES database.
Youth Crime Fact Sheet Canada. (2007). Retrieved March 18, 2008, from http://www.preventingcrime.net/library/2007-cspc%20youth%20fact%20sheet.pdf
Youth and Violence. Retrieved March 18, 2008, from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ncfv-cnivf/familyviolence/html/nfntsyjviolence.ehtml
Whitted, K. S., & Dupper, D. R. (2005). Best Practices for Preventing or Reducing Bullying in Schools. Children & Schools. 27, 167 – 175.
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